Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE


INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE


Names: Deandra Limandibhrata (1), Phua Shu Hui (4), Desmond Wong (13)


Class: S2-05


Group Reference: B


A.   [x] Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[ X ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the antibacterial effect of chrysanthemum


[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography


[   ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals


[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene 


[    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  


B.   Type and Category


Type of research: 1 (Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category  – 18 (Write down one number from 7 to 20)


Sub-category – C (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)
Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
This project is relevant to the world as this project aims to recommend healthcare centres the minimum concentration of the cleaning agent so that hospitals do not need to spend too much of their budget on following the standardized concentration of the cleaning agent. As long as bacteria on the health care centres floors can be killed, the healthcare centres would be a safe environment for its patients and staff. In addition, reducing the cost would allow the money to be used to work on other parts of the hospital such as renovating a worn-out wing of the building or buying up-to-date instruments/equipments to treat illnesses faster and safer.
With the growing numbers of daily infections from airborne and waterborne diseases and viruses within the healthcare centres, hygiene is a top priority in healthcare centres. Having the best cleaning agent is necessary to keep the health care centres in tip-top shape, allowing the patients to get the care that they need without worrying about contracting another illness.
C.    Write down your research title:


    The investigation on the effect on the amount concentration of different cleaning agents that can effectively kill bacteria.


D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed 



Our aim is to find out the minimum
“Antibacterials may be divided into two groups according to their speed of action and residue production:
The first group has compounds that  contains those that act rapidly to destroy bacteria, but quickly disappear (by evaporation or breakdown) and leave no active residue behind.
Examples of this type are the
  • alcohols,
  • chlorine
  • peroxides
  • aldehydes.
  • ethanol


The second group consists mostly of newer compounds that leave long-acting residues on the surface to disinfect and thus have a longer time to react  Common examples of this group are:
  • triclosan,
  • triclocarban
  • benzalkonium chloride.
Some these chemicals may help to fight bacteria on the floors of hospitals .Because of their rapid killing effect, the non-residue producing antibacterial agents are not believed to create resistant bacteria. Resistance results from long-term use at low-level concentrations, a condition that occurs when consumer use residue-producing agents such as triclosan and triclocarban.
Not until recently , it was accepted that these agents did not affect a specific process in bacteria, and because of this, it was unlikely that resistant bacteria could emerge. However, recent laboratory evidence indicates that triclosan inhibits a specific step in the formation of bacterial lipids involved in the cell wall structure.Other experiments found that some bacteria can combat triclosan and other biocides with export systems that could also pump out antibiotics. It was demonstrated that these triclosan-resistant mutants were also resistant to several antibiotics, specifically chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin.”


Retrieved From : © 2014 Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics


“Antimicrobial-containing wipes are becoming increasingly used to decontaminate surfaces in hospitals. studies have shown on the ability of Staphylococcus aureus to contaminate and persist in the hospital environment. Germicides are commonly used on hard surfaces in hospitals to kill bacteria. The research posed the question - 'Are we confident that these organisms are susceptible to the germicides used in our hospitals"'The study identified the need for a test which could thoroughly examine the ability of commonly used wipes to disinfect surfaces. As such, a robust 3-step protocol to assess the ability of wipes to remove, kill and prevent the transfer of bacteria between surfaces was subsequently developed. Using the 3-step method the study examined the ability of several commercially available wipes to disinfect surfaces contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).The results showed that some wipes can remove higher numbers of bacteria from surfaces than others. However, the wipes tested were unable to kill the bacteria that they removed. As a result, they transferred high numbers of bacteria to other surfaces. Our work suggests that if these wipes encounter highly contaminated surfaces in practice, the survival of bacteria on the wipe material could lead to the cross-contamination of other surfaces if used more than once.”
Retrieved From : News Medical, 2008


(b) Independent variables


The Independent Variables are the concentration of the different cleaning agents:
  • EC Oticide Cleaner
  • Glutasept LA
  • Dettol 4-in-1 Multi Action Cleaner Green Apple
  • Clorox Clean-Up All Purpose Cleaner
  • Floor Shine Floor Cleaner
In the different concentrations of 10-1 and 10-2  using the Kirby Bauer Method.


(c) Dependent variable


The Dependent Variable is the area of the bacteria killed.


(d) Controlled variables


  1. The bacteria are to be collected from the SST Chemistry Lab
  2. The concentration of cleaning agent  10-1 and 10-2 used for the respective petri dish per petri dish
  3. Let the bacteria to cultivate in the incubator for 24 hours
  4. 1 filter paper disk used per one section.


      (e) Hypotheses



½  the concentration per Cleaning Agent is the maximum dilution that can kill bacteria effectively.


E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


(a) Equipment list:
  1. 10 Petri Dishes with agar
  2. Different Cleaning Agents acquired from the hospital such as:
EC Oticide Cleaner
Glutasept LA
Dettol 4-in-1 Multi Action Cleaner Green Apple
Clorox Clean-Up All Purpose Cleaner
Floor Shine Floor Cleaner
  1. 3 mechanical Micropipette (1,000 μml, 100 μml and 10 μml)
  2. 1 manual pipette (10ml)
  3. 1 Tweezer
  4. 1 packet of 6mm Filter Paper disks
  5. 15 10ml Centrifuge Tubes
  6. Spreader
  7. Tube of E. Coli
  8. Tube of B. Subtilis
  9. Deionised Water
  10. Oil Candle (Flame)
  11. Ethanol (Used for Sterilization)
  12. Rubber Gloves  

(b) Diagrams












(c) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection


Procedure to cultivate and spread the bacteria


  1. Get plated agar from Bio Safety Cabinet
  2. Using a 100μml pipette, pipette in 100μml of E.Coli onto the agar.
  3. Using a disposable spreader, spread the E.Coli evenly
  4. After spreading, dispose spreader into the biohazard bin.


Procedure to prepare the cleaning agent


  1. Obtain a 10ml Centrifuge tube
  2. Label the tube with with the Dettol 10-1
  3. Using the Serial Dilution method, get a sample of 1000μml of Dettol using the


Procedure to test the effectiveness of the dilutions


  1. Take an area on a table and label is “EC Oticide Cleaner (E. Coli)” and “EC Oticide Cleaner (B. Subtilis)”.
  2. Take the petri dish incubated with E. Coli Bacteria labelled with A,B,C and D.
  3. Take a filter paper disk with a tweezer place a filter paper and place it in the centre of the petri dish labelled “A”
  4. Drip 2 drops of the EC Oticide Cleaner labelled “R” onto the filter paper in the petri dish
  5. Sterilize the tweezer and dropper
  6. Repeat step 3-5 for B,C,D,E,F,G and H
  7. Place the petri dishes with E. Coli Bacteria under the the label of “EC Oticide Cleaner (E. Coli)” on the table top
  8. Repeat steps 2-4 for B. Subtilis and put the petri dishes under the label of “EC Oticide Cleaner (B. Subtilis)” on the table
  9. Repeat steps 1-6 for Clorox Clean-Up All Purpose Cleaner, Floor Shine Floor Cleaner, Glutasept LA and Dettol 4-in-1 Multi Action Cleaner Green Apple with their respective labels e.g. “Glutasept LA (E. Coli)” (staggering the days)     


Procedure for data collection


  1. Place the petri dishes (closed) on the table over 2 weeks
  2. Record the area around the filter paper disks that does not have any bateria seen at 3pm everyday until the experiment ends
  3. Placed the recorded area into data collection graph.


Procedure to dispose of bacteria/cleaning agent


Cleaning Agent


  1. Pour the unused liquid down the drain and wash the containers


Bacteria
  1. Seal each petri dish properly and dispose them in the “Biohazard” bin found in the lab.


(d) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


Risk
Assessment
Management
As this experiment involves liquids, there may be spillages which may cause people to
slip and fall.
Low / Medium / High
If any spillages occur, one must immediately clean it up.
Cleaning Agents may be corrosive to the skin and hands as they may contain certain chemicals that may poisonous.
These cleaning agents may have fumes that also may cause harm if breathed in.
Low / Medium / High

Safety goggles and protective gloves are worn and maybe the inclusion of safety masks.
Disposal of bacteria, If not disposed properly may result in sudden growth of bacteria and may cause some health hazards ( like fever,flu,etc)
Low / Medium / High
Disposal of bacteria into the Biohazard bin to ensure the bacteria does not grow in the wrong place and disposed of correctly.
Breakage of the petri dishes
Low / Medium / High
Use rubber gloves or try not to hold it in such a way that the chance of dropping the petri dish would increase.


Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(e) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
1.We calculate the result and calculate the average area of the bacteria
      2. Plot a graph on the average area of bacteria found in the amount of concentration in each cleaning agent.
     3. From the graph, we can find the best cleaning agent and concentration to kill the most amount of bacteria on the floor.


Table Used


Example of graph used
To collate data to be transferred to the line graph shown below




















F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.


(a) Books
Coffey, W., & Evans, M. (1984). Molecular diffusion and spectra. New York: Wiley.


(b) Journal
P,M,M (24 September 2001). The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs. BMC Infectious Diseases. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-1-16


(c) Websites


Science Stuff, Inc, “Agar Plates - Preparation & Equipment Use”


Scott Race, (2013,October 14), How To Dilute Cleaning Products. Retrieved from:http://www.incrediblydetailed.com/dilute-cleaning-products/


Stevespanglerscience.com,“Growing Bacteria in Petri Dishes”Retrieved from http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/lab/experiments/growing-bacteria/


© 2014 Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics,”General Background:Antibiotics Agents”


News-Medical, (June 3, 2008)  “ Antimicrobial wipes can spread pathogens after first use”


(d) Photographs




Item #1241-BR. Point Tweezer. Retrived From: http://www.tweezerman.com/store/product/point-tweezer/





Dropper. Retrieved From:

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