1. Introduction

The type of research that you are adopting:

Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research

Type and Category

Type of research: 1 (Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category  – 18 (Write down one number from 7 to 20)

Sub-category – C (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:

This project is relevant to the world as this project aims to recommend healthcare centres the most effective concentration of the cleaning agent so that hospitals do not need to spend too much of their budget on following the standardized concentration of the cleaning agent. As long as bacteria on the health care centres floors can be killed, the healthcare centres would be a safe environment for its patients and staff. In addition, reducing the cost would allow the money to be used to work on other parts of the hospital such as renovating a worn-out wing of the building or buying up-to-date instruments/equipments to treat illnesses faster and safer.

   With the growing numbers of daily infections from airborne and waterborne diseases and viruses within the healthcare centres, hygiene is a top priority in healthcare centres. Having the best cleaning agent is necessary to keep the health care centres in tip-top shape, allowing the patients to get the care that they need without worrying about contracting another illness.

1.1 Research Questions 


Our aim is to find out the minimum
“Antibacterials may be divided into two groups according to their speed of action and residue production:
The first group has compounds that  contains those that act rapidly to destroy bacteria, but quickly disappear (by evaporation or breakdown) and leave no active residue behind.
Examples of this type are the
  • alcohols,
  • chlorine
  • peroxides
  • aldehydes.
  • ethanol

The second group consists mostly of newer compounds that leave long-acting residues on the surface to disinfect and thus have a longer time to react.  
Common examples of this group are:
  • triclosan,
  • triclocarban
  • benzalkonium chloride.
Some these chemicals may help to fight bacteria on the floors of hospitals. Because of their rapid killing effect, the non-residue producing antibacterial agents are not believed to create resistant bacteria.

Resistance results from long-term use at low-level concentrations, a condition that occurs when consumer use residue-producing agents such as triclosan and triclocarban.

Not until recently, it was accepted that these agents did not affect a specific process in bacteria, and because of this, it was unlikely that resistant bacteria could emerge. However, recent laboratory evidence indicates that triclosan inhibits a specific step in the formation of bacterial lipids involved in the cell wall structure.

Other experiments found that some bacteria can combat triclosan and other biocides with export systems that could also pump out antibiotics. It was demonstrated that these triclosan-resistant mutants were also resistant to several antibiotics, specifically chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin.” (Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics, 2014)

“Antimicrobial-containing wipes are becoming increasingly used to decontaminate surfaces in hospitals. studies have shown on the ability of Staphylococcus aureus to contaminate and persist in the hospital environment. Germicides are commonly used on hard surfaces in hospitals to kill bacteria. The research posed the question - 'Are we confident that these organisms are susceptible to the germicides used in our hospitals’

'The study identified the need for a test which could thoroughly examine the ability of commonly used wipes to disinfect surfaces. As such, a robust 3-step protocol to assess the ability of wipes to remove, kill and prevent the transfer of bacteria between surfaces was subsequently developed. Using the 3-step method the study examined the ability of several commercially available wipes to disinfect surfaces contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).The results showed that some wipes can remove higher numbers of bacteria from surfaces than others. However, the wipes tested were unable to kill the bacteria that they removed. As a result, they transferred high numbers of bacteria to other surfaces. Our work suggests that if these wipes encounter highly contaminated surfaces in practice, the survival of bacteria on the wipe material could lead to the cross-contamination of other surfaces if used more than once.’ (News Medical, 2008)

So, as we want to research if there are any types of chemicals that the bacteria is resistant to, this will help us in the our findings and putting the cleaning agents to a test of strength and see which cleaning agent can outperform the rest. This is helpful for our serial dilution test as it shows how far the liquids can be diluted before it loses.

     1.2 Hypothesis

10-1  dilution of the Cleaning Agent is the most cost effective dilution that can kill bacteria

1.3 Variables

(a) Independent variable

The Independent Variable is the concentration of the different cleaning agents

(b) Dependent variable

The Dependent Variable is the area of the bacteria killed

(d) Controlled variables

  1. The place where the bacteria are collected
  2. The amount of cleaning agent used per petri dish
  3. Time taken for bacteria to cultivate
  4. Time taken to Incubate bacteria
  5. Amount of filter paper disks used in one sections


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